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On August 28th 2001, the antitrust commission (Conseil de la concurrence) opened an investigation on the market of mobile network operators in France. On May 14th 2004, a report made by the consumer protection agency of the ministry of economy and finance (DGCCRF) was transmitted to the antitrust commission. On August 24th 2005, an article in the French weekly Canard Enchaine  revealed some information contained in the report.

On November 30th 2005, the antitrust commission condemned the mobile network operator Bouygues Telecom to a fine of €58 millions (decision 05-D-65) for violations of article L.420-1 of the code of commerce. On December 12th 2006, the appeal court of Paris rejected the appeal of Bouygues Telecom (decision 2006/00048) after receiving briefs from the ministry of economy and finance and the antitrust commission. On June 29th 2007, the appeal of Bouygues Telecom to the supreme court (Cour de cassation) failed (case 07-10303).

On December 20th 2007, Bouygues Telecom filed an application with the ECHR arguing that the lack of public hearing before the antitrust commission gave its decision, the submission of briefs by the ministry of economy and finance, and the antitrust commission during the appeal trial were violations of article 6-1 of the Convention. The applicant added that the leaking of the report to the press was a violation of article 6-2. On January 17th 2012, the application was communicated to the agent of the French Republic with questions to be answered within 16 weeks. The applicant is represented by Me Alain Benabent (Paris).

In autumn 1977, Ms. Agnes Roux disappeared. On August 13th 1983, Mr. Maurice Agnelet was suspected of her “murder” by an investigative judge, following the criminal complain of the mother of Ms. Agnes Roux. On April 23th 1986, the investigation chamber of the appeal court of Aix en Provence, confirmed the decision of the investigative judge to close the investigation without charging any suspect. On February 1st 1988, the supreme court (Cour de cassation) rejected the appeal of the mother of Ms. Agnes Roux (case 86-92512).

On December 20th 2000, Mr. Maurice Agnelet was again suspected of her “murder” by another investigative judge. On October 26th 2005, he was charged with “murder” by the investigation chamber. On December 20th 2006, he was acquitted by the criminal court of Nice. But the prosecutor appealed the acquittal (art.380-2 of the code of penal procedure). On October 11th 2007, he was found guilty of “murder” by the criminal court of Aix en Provence and sentenced to 20 years in prison. On October 15th 2008, the supreme court rejected his appeal (case 07-87723).

On December 11th 2008, Mr. Maurice Agnelet filed an application to the ECHR (see below) on the ground that the 20 years investigation and the prosecution after the expiry of the statute of limitation were both in violation of articles 6-1, 6-2 and 13 that the formal charge of October 26th 2005 didn’t contain in detail the nature and cause of the accusation of “murder” (where?, when?, how?) in violation of article 6-3-a) and the 2 questions of the head judge to the jury on a new charge of “complicity to commit murder” on the last day of the trial was another violation of article 6-3-a).

He added that the ruling of the 3 judges of the criminal court on October 9th 2007 which stated that he “lied“, was a violation of article 6-1,  that the head judge refused to record the closing argument of the prosecutor on October 9th 2007 in violation of article 6-1, that the head judge had printed a decision where the jury found him guilty before its deliberation in violation of article 6-1 and that the criminal court judgment was groundless in regards to his guilt and to the length of his sentence in violation of article 6-1. On December 13th 2010 and August 17th 2011, the applicant submitted two additional briefs (brief 1, brief 2). The applicant is represented by Me Francois Saint-Pierre (Lyon/Paris).

On September 27th 2011, the 5th section of the Court ruled that the application was only admissible for the lack of ground of the criminal judgment, and communicated the application to the agent of French Republic with questions to be answered within 16 weeks. Surprisingly, the 5th section found that the formal charge of October 26th 2005 was not in violation of article 6-3-a) on the ground that it was a “93 pages brief” that detailed the “attitude of the defendant with the family” of Ms. Agnes Roux.

On September 26th 1994, Ms. Agnes Klouvi filed a complain for rape and sexual assault. She alleged that she was raped and molested several times from 1992 to 1994 by her ex-boss T.. On January 1998, an investigating judge of the tribunal of Paris refused to charge T. and closed the investigation.

On October 21th 1999, she was condemned to 6 months suspended prison sentence for “false accusation” (art.226-10 of the penal code) by the tribunal of Paris and to pay €12,195 of damages and €3,048 of legal cost to T. On December 5th 2001, the appeal court of Paris confirmed the ruling. On March 25th 2003, the supreme court (Cour de cassation) rejected her appeal (02-80569).

On September 18th 2003, the applicant lodged her case to the European Court of Human Rights arguing that article 226-10 of the penal code forced judges to condemn for “false accusation” all the plaintiffs whose allegations didn’t result in the suspect being charged, in violation of articles 6-1 and 6-2 of the Convention.

On February 2nd 2007, the application was communicated to the agent of the French government.

On June 30th 2011, the Court found a violation of articles 6-1 and 6-2 of the Convention on the ground that the article 226-10 of the penal code didn’t allow judges to examine the allegation of the plaintiff but forced them to consider the allegation as false and malicious and to condemn the plaintiff for “false accusation” if no charge were brought against the suspect. The applicant was represented by Me Christophe Pettiti (Paris). The Court awarded her €8,000 for moral damages and  €4,832 for legal fees.

Under article 626-1 of the code of penal procedure, the applicant can now request a new trial at an appeal court from a special commission of the supreme court, in order to redress the violations of article 6 found by the European Court of Human Rights.

On July 11th 2010, article 226-10 of the penal code was slightly modified by article 16 of law 2010-769. But according to Me Christophe Pettiti the change is not fully satisfying for plaintiffs in sexual crime cases. He added that it is now the responsibility of French judges to take into account judgment Klouvi v. France (30754/03) when ruling on accusations of “false accusation”.

On July 1st 1992, a Belgium bank received from Nigeria a “contract”  to transfer $45 millions to the bank account of Mr. Dimitrios Coussios. It seems to have been an attempt for an advanced fee fraud (also called 419 fraud). Nevertheless, the bank informed the employer of Mr. Dimitri Coussios (the European Commission) of the contract. The district attorney of Brussels didn’t open any investigation.

On December 1st 1993, the European Commission fired the applicant for having formed a contract as a member of the European Commission. On June 17th 1994, the applicant sued the Belgium bank for damages, for disclosing the “contract” to his employer.  On November 2nd 2007, the supreme court rejected the appeal of the applicant, putting an end to a civil litigation of 13 years.

On April 22nd 2008, the applicant submitted his case to the European Court of Human Rights arguing that a civil litigation lasting 13 years was a violation of article 6-1 of the Convention. He added that the civil appeal court of Mons considered him guilty of “fraud” was a violation of article 6-2, his dismissal was a violation of articles 6-3 and 8 and the lack of remedies a violation of article 13. The applicant is represented by Me Xavier Magnee (Brussels).

On May 3rd 2010, the application was communicated to the agent of the Belgium government with questions to be answered within 16 weeks. On October 14th 2010, the applicant submitted his observations.

On September 19th 2006, Mr. Nicolas Vosgien was placed in detention pending investigation, by a judge of the tribunal of Nice. On December 2nd 2008, he was formally charged and subsequently detained awaiting trial.

On December 14th 2010, the instruction chamber of the appeal court of Aix-en-Provence found that the applicant was detained without any valid order since December 3rd 2010 and released immediately the applicant. On January 21th 2011, he was condemned to prison by the tribunal of Nice.

During the 4 years of detention pending investigation and trial, the judge of the tribunal of Nice and the instruction chamber of the appeal court of Aix-en-Provence motivated their order for detention by the fact that the applicant was..guilty.

On January 26th 2011, the applicant submitted his case to the European Court of Human Rights arguing that the detention in local jail for more than 4 years before his trial was a violation of article 5-3 of the Convention and the motivation of the order of detention by his guiltiness was a violation of article 6-2. He is represented by Me Benoit David (Paris). On May 2nd 2011, the application was communicated to the agent of the French government with questions to be answered within 16 weeks.

On June 19th 2008, a superintendent of police sent a notice to Mr. Damien Celice informing him that he was accused of speeding at 71km/h on June 14th 2008. The speed limit was 70km/h. The superintendent inviting him to plead guilty by paying a fine of €68. But the applicant chose to send a request for a court hearing along with the mandatory deposit of €68 (art.529-2 of the code of penal procedure). He also requested a copy of the photo taken by the speed radar. According to the applicant, his car was being repaired in an auto shop the day of the alleged speeding offense.

On September 3rd 2008, the superintendent of police informed him that he will not send him the photo, will not request a court hearing and that he will use the deposit of €68 to pay for the fine. On November 21st 2008, the ministry of interior informed the applicant that he has been found guilty of speeding by the superintendent of police following the payment of the €68 fine.

On February 26th 2009, the applicant submitted his case to the European Court of Human Rights arguing that the mandatory deposit to have access to court was a violation of article 6-2 of the Convention and the denied access to court hearing was a violation of article 6-1. He is represented by Me Bertrand Perier (Paris). On May 25th 2010, the application was communicated to the agent of the French government with questions to be answered within 16 weeks.

On January 20th 2009, a parking ticket was issued for the car parked by the applicant at Montigny-le-Bretonneux. A fine notice was sent to the applicant son’s who had registered the car. On March 5th 2009, the applicant requested the prosecutor to dismiss the proceeding against his son and open proceeding against him under art. 529-10 1-b) of code of penal procedure. He also requested to be prosecuted to challenge the legality of the parking ordinance in court.

On June 15th 2009, the prosecutor rejected the applicant request. But after a new request was made by the applicant, the prosecutor informed him on July 31th 2009 that the case was sent to the court and that he will be served. But on October 28th 2000, a notice for repossession for €33 was served for his son. On May 21th 2010, a final notice for €40,5 was served. On May 27th 2010, the fine was paid by the applicant for his son.

On July 9th 2010, the applicant and his son filed an application with the E.C.H.R arguing that the refusal of the prosecutor to schedule a hearing in court was a violation of articles 6-1 and 13 of the Convention and that the condemnation by a  prosecutor and not a court was  a violation of article 6-2. The applicants are advised by Me Philippe Yllouz.

On September 29th 2010, the application was communicated to the agent of the French Republic with questions to be answered within 16 weeks. On the same day, the constitutional council found that the lack of judicial review of the decision taken by the prosecutor was a violation of the Constitution (case 2010-38 QPC).

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